What is prediabetes?

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disorder that affects how the body metabolizes sugar (glucose), an important source of fuel for the body.

With type 2 diabetes, the body either resists the effects of insulin (a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar in cells), or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.

Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but more children are now being diagnosed with the disorder, likely due to increased childhood obesity. There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating, and exercising can help control the disease. If

diet and exercise are not necessary to effectively control blood sugar, you may also need diabetes medication or insulin treatment.

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Symptoms
Frequently, the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes were detected slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years without knowing it. Pay attention to the following:

Increased thirst
Need to urinate often
Increased appetite
Unintentional weight loss
Fatigue
Blurry vision
Sores that take time to heal
Frequent infections
Darkened areas of skin, usually in the armpits and neck
Immediately consult a doctor
Check with your doctor if you notice any of the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

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Causes
Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin. The exact reason why this happens is unknown, although it seems that there are genetic and environmental factors, such as overweight and inactivity, which affect its appearance.

How Insulin Works
Insulin is a hormone that forms in the gland behind and below the stomach (the pancreas).

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The pancreas secretes insulin into the blood stream.
Insulin circulates and allows sugar to enter cells.
Insulin reduces the amount of sugar in the blood stream.
As the blood sugar level drops, insulin secretion from the pancreas decreases.
The role of glucose
Glucose – a type of sugar – is the main source of energy for cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

Glucose from two main sources: food and the liver.
Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
The liver generates and stores glucose.
When glucose levels are low, as it has not been eaten for a long time, the liver converts stored glycogen to glucose to keep the glucose level in the normal range.
In type 2 diabetes, this process does not work well. Instead of passing into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. As blood sugar levels rise, the beta cells that make insulin in the pancreas release more insulin, but eventually lose their capacity and cannot make enough insulin to meet the body’s demands.

In much less frequent type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly destroys beta cells and leaves the body with little or no insulin.

Risk factor’s
Factors that can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes include:

Weight. Being overweight is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, you do not have to be overweight to develop type 2 diabetes.
Fat distribution. If you store fat primarily in the abdomen, you are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes than if you store it elsewhere, such as in the hips and muscles. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if you are a man with a 40-inch (101.6 cm) waist circumference or a woman with more than a 35-inch (88.9 cm) waist.
Inactivity The less active you are, the more risk you will have type 2 diabetes. Physical activity helps you control weight, uses glucose for energy, and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin.
Family background. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your father, mother, or sibling have it.
Race Although it is not clear why, people of races, such as African-American, Hispanic, Indian-American, and Asian, are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes than white people.
Age Your risk of type 2 diabetes increases as you get older, especially after your 45th birthday. This may probably be due to people, as they get older, experience less exercise, lose muscle mass, and gain weight. But type 2 diabetes is also

source > https://www.mayoclinic.org/

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